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Posts tagged "tyrannosaurus"

How to Ship a T. rex Across the Country

Museum officials are crating and shipping the “tyrant lizard king” from Montana to Washington, D.C

After more than a decade of trying, the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History will finally be getting its very own Tyrannosaurus rex, or “tyrant lizard king,” on April 15.

The Tuesday morning arrival of this iconic dinosaur will cap a 2,000-mile (3,219-kilometer) journey that scientists, movers, and museum officials have been preparing for months. (See "My T. rex Is Bigger Than Yours.”)

Rancher Kathy Wankel discovered the T. rex while out hiking with her family near Montana’s Fort Peck reservoir (map) in 1988, on land that belonged to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The Corps kept the Wankel rex at the Museum of the Rockies (MOR) in Bozeman, Montana, for nearly 20 years, and have now loaned it to the Smithsonian for the next 50 years.

"We have the most T. rex specimens of any collection in the world,” says Patrick Leiggi, administrative director of paleontology at the MOR. Since the Smithsonian didn’t have its own T. rex, the MOR offered to help out.

Read The full article on National Geographic.

historiascienciacionales:

Encontrar T. rex en México empezando por los dientes

/ Cerca de la Sierra San José, en el estado de Sonora, México, la tierra de colores pardos y algunos escasos matorrales pueblan el paisaje. Hay más polvo y roca que vegetación. A los ojos de un turista, no hay mucho que ver. A los ojos de un paleontólogo, se trata de una mina de oro. Siempre que las entrañas de la Tierra se asomen a la superficie, el lugar atraerá los picos, las brochas y los sombreros características de los científicos que estudian la vida antigua. Por ello es que Carlos González León, investigador el Instituto de Geología de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, pasa tanto tiempo en estas rocas sonorenses. Y de vez en cuando, entre las pequeñas satisfacciones diarias de su vida se cuela una satisfacción mayúscula, digamos, una tan grande como de unos 12 metros de largo, unas 7 toneladas de peso, con dientes terribles en una boca hórrida, y brazos demasiado pequeños: la satisfacción de descubrir restos de un Tyrannosaurus rex.

Seis dientes bastaron para emocionar a Carlos y a sus colegas, entre ellos, a Claudia Serrano Brañas, también del Instituto de Geología de la misma universidad. Ella lideró el análisis de los dientes que arrojó como conclusión que Tyrannosaurus rex también pisó tierras mexicanas. “Estamos realmente emocionados con este descubrimiento, ya que por primera vez para México podemos decir con certeza que el dinosaurio más famoso de todos los tiempos habitó nuestro país”, comenta Claudia en entrevista para Historias Cienciacionales.

No fue un análisis sencillo. Los tiranosáuridos, el grupo de especies al que pertenece T. rex, es muy amplio y sus dientes son muy parecidos entre las especies… Carnívoros al fin y al cabo. Se sospechaba que algunos dientes encontrados en otras partes del norte de México podían ser del rey, pero era difícil asegurarlo. “Resultaba casi imposible distinguir entre los diferentes géneros”, explica Claudia; “sin embargo, a través de datos cuantitativos y la aplicación de una serie de análisis estadísticos es que pudimos identificar a nuestros ejemplares como dientes de Tyrannosaurus.”

Fuera del orgullo patriotero, que evidentemente le importaba un licopodio al T. rex, este descubrimiento es relevante porque amplía la zona conocida donde vivía este famoso animal, cuyos fósiles se han encontrado en muchos lugares de Norteamérica, pero nunca tan al sur. “Hasta antes de la publicación de éste artículo, se pensaba que el género Tyrannosaurus sólo se había distribuido en Canadá y Estados Unidos”.

Seis dientes bastaron para emocionar a estos paleontólogos, pero ¿esos dientes les dan esperanzas de encontrar más restos, quizá fragmentos de hueso o incluso esqueletos más completos? “Sin duda alguna. Yo considero que sólo es cuestión de tiempo para que encontremos esqueletos de Tyrannosaurus; simplemente se necesita un poco de paciencia y una gran perseverancia”, concluye Claudia. Todos los dinoaficionados tendremos los ojos bien abiertos.

_________________________________________

En la imagen, uno de los dientes encontrados por Carlos, Claudia y sus colegas, junto a una ilustración del rey. Tomada del artículo original. A la izquierda, una representación artística del T. rex, tomada de este sitio: https://www.flickr.com/photos/paul_heaston/5702024022/in/photostream/

Aquí el artículo original de Claudia Serrano, Carlos González y sus colegas: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195667114000366

Aquí un poco de información sobre dinosaurios en México: http://www.revista.unam.mx/vol.1/dino/index.html

Agradecemos mucho a Claudia Serrano Brañas por contestar amablemente las preguntas que le hicimos para esta nota.

(via afro-dominicano)

Jane (by crownedrose)

(via crownedrose)

crownedrose:


T. Rex’s Bite More Dangerous Than Previously Believed
The tyrant lizard, also known asTyrannosaurus rex, had the strongest bite of any known land animal, new research suggests.
“Our results show that the T. rexhad an extremely powerful bite, making it one of the most dangerous predators to have roamed our planet,” study researcher Karl Bates, of the University of Liverpool, said in a statement.
Younger T. rexes didn’t have such strong bites, the researchers found, which probably meant they had a different diet and relied less on the fearsome bite than their older counterparts. This differing diets likely led reduced competition between generations of T. rex, the researchers said.
The new estimate of bite force is higher than past estimates that relied on indent measures in which they pressed down the skull and teeth onto a bone until they got the imprints that matched those on fossils. In the new study, the researchers created a computer model of the dinosaur’s jaw by first digitally scanning skulls from an adult and juvenile T. rex, an allosaurus, an alligator and an adult human. They used these scans to model each animal’s bite.
“We took what we knew about T. rex from its skeleton and built a computer model,” Bates said. “We then asked the computer model to produce a bite so that we could measure the speed and force of it directly.”
The force exerted at one of T. rex’s back teeth would have been between 7,868 and 12,814 pounds-force (35,000 and 57,000 newtons). This force would be akin to having a medium-size elephant sit on you.
Read the rest over at LiveScience.com

Way to go, T. rex! As I posted yesterday on Tyrannosaurus for my Theropod Of The Day series, this is great (and more!) information for anyone interested in those big jaws of the ‘Tyrant Lizard King’. This is fantastic support towards the points I made in my post as well. With fused nasal bones, that’s helping the power of the bite impact and safety of the skull itself, plus rigged and curved teeth to help the support of tearing off meat or holding down struggling prey, and then the room for much muscle attachment to really give it a deadly blow! Hunter or scavenger? For me, I’ve always been on the hunter side (and scavenging when needed), so I’m excited to read the published report, and surely can’t wait to see what else we uncover from our extinct friends.

crownedrose:

T. Rex’s Bite More Dangerous Than Previously Believed

The tyrant lizard, also known asTyrannosaurus rex, had the strongest bite of any known land animal, new research suggests.

“Our results show that the T. rexhad an extremely powerful bite, making it one of the most dangerous predators to have roamed our planet,” study researcher Karl Bates, of the University of Liverpool, said in a statement.

Younger T. rexes didn’t have such strong bites, the researchers found, which probably meant they had a different diet and relied less on the fearsome bite than their older counterparts. This differing diets likely led reduced competition between generations of T. rex, the researchers said.

The new estimate of bite force is higher than past estimates that relied on indent measures in which they pressed down the skull and teeth onto a bone until they got the imprints that matched those on fossils. In the new study, the researchers created a computer model of the dinosaur’s jaw by first digitally scanning skulls from an adult and juvenile T. rex, an allosaurus, an alligator and an adult human. They used these scans to model each animal’s bite.

“We took what we knew about T. rex from its skeleton and built a computer model,” Bates said. “We then asked the computer model to produce a bite so that we could measure the speed and force of it directly.”

The force exerted at one of T. rex’s back teeth would have been between 7,868 and 12,814 pounds-force (35,000 and 57,000 newtons). This force would be akin to having a medium-size elephant sit on you.

Read the rest over at LiveScience.com

Way to go, T. rex! As I posted yesterday on Tyrannosaurus for my Theropod Of The Day series, this is great (and more!) information for anyone interested in those big jaws of the ‘Tyrant Lizard King’. This is fantastic support towards the points I made in my post as well. With fused nasal bones, that’s helping the power of the bite impact and safety of the skull itself, plus rigged and curved teeth to help the support of tearing off meat or holding down struggling prey, and then the room for much muscle attachment to really give it a deadly blow! Hunter or scavenger? For me, I’ve always been on the hunter side (and scavenging when needed), so I’m excited to read the published report, and surely can’t wait to see what else we uncover from our extinct friends.

(via geologise)

crownedrose:

Theropod Of The Day: Tyrannosaurus rex
→ Photo above by subarcticmike on Flickr.
→ T.O.T.D. posts written by crownedrose.

Tyrannosaurus rex may as well be the most famous dinosaur to have ever walked the Earth. Its name means “tyrant lizard” in Greek, and rex is “king” in Latin which was pinned by Henry Fairfield Osborn back in 1905, and the massive theropod sure lives up to its name! Below is some interesting information about T. rex for all to enjoy.

⁌ T. rex lived during the Late Cretaceous Period (67-65 Mya) as many know, roaming what is now the western parts of the United States of America and Canada. They measured to be slightly over 40 feet long at maximum, with powerful and elongated hind legs that show an ability to allow a decent speed for such a robust animals. There’s also the thick tail to help with balance, and the iconic (but short) S-shaped neck you see in theropods.

⁌ Contrary to popular belief, T. rex had forelimbs that were not useless. Theories have been brought to the table that they were used during mating rituals, or perhaps to hold down prey (dead or alive). Studying these specimens, T. rex forelimbs show a considerable amount of muscle attachments, making these forelimbs much stronger than previously thought; perhaps being able to curl over 400 pounds with each two digit hand! Not so wimpy anymore, right?

⁌ The tyrannosaur above is nicknamed “Black Beauty” because of the magnesium rich (and well preserved) skeleton, which is on display at the Royal Tyrrell Museum in Alberta, Canada.

⁌ Many know and have heard of Tyrannosaurus “Sue”, which is my favourite dinosaur skeleton in the world! She is the largest, most complete, and best preserved Tyrannosaurus rex ever discovered. Her skeleton has given us an endless amount of information towards the life and biomechanics of tyrannosaurids, and dinosaurs in general of the Mesozoic. You can read extra information I’ve written up about Sue here.

⁌ Unlike their depiction in Jurassic Park, Tyrannosaurus rex had binocular vision, which gave them great eyesight to hunt and scavenge for their prey. If you look at their skull, it is shaped like a triangle; the front of the skull is slender which then widens out to the back of the skull. This structure helped T. rex to have this vision, which suggests that it was a hunter. Many years ago it was thought T. rex only scavenged for food, but the hunter/scavenger debate is one that still goes on to this day in palaeontology, plus the theories of Tyrannosaurus engaging in cannibalism is on the table!

⁌ Ever heard of their teeth being called ‘bananas’? Tyrannosaurus had teeth with heterodonty, which means that their teeth changed shape depending on their position in the jaws (just like us)! Everyone knows the teeth T. rex had, which are massive, thick with reinforced ridges, and shaped like bananas which in tandem with the jaw power of T. rex, made for a deadly crushing bite. The premaxillary teeth at the front of the jaws helped as well for them to not break off during feeding due to their shape (and those ridges!). T. rex as well also replaced teeth, just like sharks do. We’ve found this out because of well preserved fossils that show new teeth coming in around full grown ones.

⁌ Their skull is one to be reckoned with, evolution having a field day to make for a powerful killer. Unlike other theropods, T. rex had a U-shaped upper jaw at the tip, strengthening its power to create bone crushing jaws which could deal with much stress in tearing off meat. Having such a massive skull would be heavy, but luckily (like other theropods), T. rex had many ways to lighten the weight by having large openings in the skull, along with certain bones showing to be fused and have skeletal pneumaticity. Read more about theropod skull comparison here.

⁌ The growth rate of T. rex was very fast, and one of the most changing during their lifetime. If you compare a youngster and adult tyrannosaur, you will see how much they morph. From having knife-like teeth and elongated heads when young, they grow up to have a much wider and robust head with those banana teeth like I stated above. Because of this dramatic change, some discoveries of young tyrannosaurs are thought to be a new genus of tyrannosauridae (ever hear of Nanotyrannus?). Many still debate whether or not Nanotyrannus (and even other tyrannosaurs) is a new genus, and more research is still being done to weave out these questions.

Also, I just want to end this post with a big thank you to everyone who has encouraged me to write this series, and for reading my ridiculously long posts! I tend to get very excited when I write these up, and I tried my best not to go too in depth on every aspect of Tyrannosaurus rex, though it all is extremely interesting. If anyone would like more information on T. rex - like locomotion, anatomy, feeding habits, fossil history, etc - just send me a message! I’m always willing to answer questions on theropods for the curious minds out there. I hope you all have enjoyed reading this, and be sure to keep a look out for future T.O.T.D. posts!

Theropod Of The Day Links:

crownedrose:

Tyrannosaurus Sue etching (by angus mcdiarmid)

This is a metal etching of “Sue”, done on a zinc plate with ferric chloride. This is absolutely stunning, and even more awesome because of the process that was followed to create this. View the etch in a larger form here.

(via arrowtongue)