Electrons are known to possess both particle and wave proprieties; and are able to surpass classically forbidden barriers as a result of their wavelike characteristics. This phenomenon is a quantum mechanical effect known as ‘tunneling.’ Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) is an analytical technique that uses a piezoelectric tip to produce a tunneling current between a conducting or semi-conducting material and the tip; and ultimately results in a topographic map of the surface at a near-atomic level. An STM image of graphite is shown. The dark spots represent the centers of the 6-membered carbon rings. Using this technique, the lattice constant and bond length between adjacent carbon atoms can be calculated.