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Posts tagged "anatomy"

biomedicalephemera:

Our Three (Brain) Mothers

Protecting our brain and central nervous system are the meninges, derived from the Greek term for “membrane”. You may have heard of meningitis - this is when the innermost layer of the meninges swells, often due to infection, and can cause nerve or brain damage, and sometimes death.

There are three meningeal layers: the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater. In Latin, “mater” means “mother”. The term comes from the enveloping nature of these membranes, but we later learned how apt it was, because of how protective and essential the meningeal layers are.

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  • The dura mater is the outermost and toughest membrane. Its name means “tough mother”.

The dura is most important for keeping cerebrospinal fluid where it belongs, and for allowing the safe transport of blood to and from the brain. This layer is also water-tight - if it weren’t, our cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) would leak out, and our central nervous system would have no cushion! Its leathery qualities mean that even when the skull is broken, more often than not, the dura (and the brain it encases) is not punctured.

  • The arachnoid mater is the middle membrane. Its name means "spider-like mother", because of its web-like nature.

The arachnoid is attached directly to the deep side of the dura, and has small protrusions into the sinuses within the dura, which allows for CSF to return to the bloodstream and not become stagnant. It also has very fine, web-like projections downward, which attach to the pia mater. However, it doesn’t contact the pia mater in the same way as the dura: the CSF flows between the two meningeal layers, in the subarachnoid space. The major superficial blood vessels are on top of the arachnoid, and below the dura.

  • Pia mater is the innermost membrane, which follows the folds (sulci) of the brain and spinal cord most closely. Its name means “tender mother”.

The pia is what makes sure the CSF stays between the meninges, and doesn’t just get absorbed into the brain or spinal cord. It also allows for new CSF from the ventricles to be shunted into the subarachnoid space, and provides pathways for blood vessels to nourish the brain. While the pia mater is very thin, it is water-tight, just like the dura mater. The pia is also the primary blood-brain barrier, making sure that no plasma proteins or organic molecules penetrate into the CSF. 

Because of this barrier, medications which need to reach the brain or meninges must be administered directly into the CSF.

Images:
Anatomy: Practical and Surgical. Henry Gray, 1909.

cryptobranchus:

Ventral Skeleton of the Hand

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thievinggenius:

Tattoo done by Adrian Edek.

@edekqwerty

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corporisfabrica:

Retinæ as seen through fluorescein angiogram.

The innermost wall of the interior of the eye is lined with the photosensitive cells of the retina.  These images visualize the blood vessels which supply these cells and make vision possible. Originating from the blind spot around the optic disc, these vessels seem to converge upon the dark region at the center. This is the macula lutea, which contains the densely-packed cells responsible for the human eye’s greatest visual potential and your sharpest vision.

If you attempt to read this post at the corner of your eye, you will find it entirely impossible; the parts of the retina responsible for peripheral vision simply lack the resolution for such tasks. 

(via afro-dominicano)

3D Printed Liver

A new method of 3D printing an anatomically accurate replica of the human liver is now helping to guide surgeons during tricky procedures, researchers report.

Image credit: Cleveland Clinic

The 3D-printed models of the human liver are made of transparent material that is threaded with colored arteries and veins.

These livers could help surgeons prevent complications when performing liver transplants, or removing cancerous tumors, researchers said.

scienceyoucanlove:

Fertile women release one or more eggs every month, but until now, only fuzzy images had been recorded.The new images were taken by accident by gynaecologist Jacques Donnez while carrying out a partial hysterectomy on a 45-year-old woman.The release of an egg was thought to be a sudden event, but the pictures published in New Scientist magazine show it takes over 15 minutes for the translucent yellow sphere to emerge.“The release of the oocyte (immature egg cell) from the ovary is a crucial event in human reproduction. These pictures are clearly important to better understand the mechanism,” Donnez, from the Catholic University of Louvain in Brussels, said.Shortly before the egg is released, enzymes break down the tissue in a fluid-filled sac on the surface of the ovary that contains the egg. A reddish protrusion forms and then a hole appears from which the egg emerges.The egg is surrounded by supporting cells, which protect it as it enters the Fallopian tube on its way to the uterus.Professor Alan McNeilly, from the Medical Research Council’s Human Reproduction Unit in Edinburgh, told the BBC: “It really is a fascinating insight into ovulation, and to see it in real life is an incredibly rare occurrence.It really is a pivotal moment in the whole process, the beginnings of life in a way.”Source: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/
text source 

scienceyoucanlove:

Fertile women release one or more eggs every month, but until now, only fuzzy images had been recorded.

The new images were taken by accident by gynaecologist Jacques Donnez while carrying out a partial hysterectomy on a 45-year-old woman.

The release of an egg was thought to be a sudden event, but the pictures published in New Scientist magazine show it takes over 15 minutes for the translucent yellow sphere to emerge.

“The release of the oocyte (immature egg cell) from the ovary is a crucial event in human reproduction. These pictures are clearly important to better understand the mechanism,” Donnez, from the Catholic University of Louvain in Brussels, said.

Shortly before the egg is released, enzymes break down the tissue in a fluid-filled sac on the surface of the ovary that contains the egg. A reddish protrusion forms and then a hole appears from which the egg emerges.

The egg is surrounded by supporting cells, which protect it as it enters the Fallopian tube on its way to the uterus.

Professor Alan McNeilly, from the Medical Research Council’s Human Reproduction Unit in Edinburgh, told the BBC: “It really is a fascinating insight into ovulation, and to see it in real life is an incredibly rare occurrence.

It really is a pivotal moment in the whole process, the beginnings of life in a way.”

Source: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/

text source 

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devflavio46:

Leonardo da Vinci.

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devflavio46:

Photo by Ralph Hutchings (2007).

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medicalschool:

Illustration of the heart and the blood vessels by  Leonardo da Vinci, 15th century

medicalschool:

Illustration of the heart and the blood vessels by  Leonardo da Vinci, 15th century

medicalstate:

Hip and Lower Limb Anatomy.

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medicalschool:

A intussuception as seen on CT

An intussusception is a medical condition in which a part of the intestine has invaginated into another section of intestine, similar to the way in which the parts of a collapsible telescope slide into one another.This can often result in an obstruction. The part that prolapses into the other is called the intussusceptum, and the part that receives it is called the intussuscipiens.Early symptoms can include nausea, vomiting (sometimes bile stained [green color]), pulling legs to the chest area, and intermittent moderate to severe cramping abdominal pain. Pain is intermittent not because the intussusception temporarily resolves, but because the intussuscepted bowel segment transiently stops contracting. Later signs include rectal bleeding, often with “red currant jelly” stool (stool mixed with blood and mucus), and lethargy. Physical examination may reveal a “sausage-shaped” mass felt upon palpation of the abdomen.

molecularlifesciences:

Top 5 misconceptions about evolution: A guide to demystify the foundation of modern biology.

Version 2.0

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vukizgb:

Body Worlds is a traveling exhibition of preserved human bodies and body parts that are prepared using a technique called plastination to reveal inner anatomical structures.

The exhibition’s developer and promoter is German anatomist Gunther von Hagens, who invented the plastination technique in the late 1970s at the University of Heidelberg.

(via afro-dominicano)