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Posts tagged "Cosmos"

afro-dominicano:

Mapping the Light of the Cosmos

Figuring out what the structure of the universe is surprisingly hard. Most of the matter that makes up the cosmos is totally dark, and much of what is left is in tiny, dim galaxies that are virtually impossible to detect.

Image: The first image above shows one possible scenario for the distribution of light in the cosmos. Credit: Andrew Pontzen/Fabio Governato

This image shows a computer simulation of one possible scenario for the large-scale distribution of light sources in the universe. The details of how light (and hence galaxies and quasars) is distributed through the cosmos is still not a settled question – in particular, the relative contributions of (faint but numerous) galaxies and (bright but rare) quasars is unknown.

(New research from UCL cosmologists published last week shows how we should be able to find out soon.)

However, astronomers know that on the largest scales, the universe is structured as a vast web made up of filaments and clusters of galaxies, gas and dark matter separated by huge, dark voids. Observational astronomy is making strides forward in mapping out these structures in gas and light, but the smallest galaxies – less than a pixel across in the image above – might never be seen directly because they are simply too faint.

A Hubble image of a nearby faint dwarf galaxy (bottom image) shows the challenge involved in observing these objects even when they are in our galaxy’s vicinity.

These computer models are one way of trying to extrapolate from what we know to what is really there. New research from UCL now shows how we can also use future observations of gas to find out more about this elusive population of tiny galaxies.

This simulated image shows the distribution of light in an area of space over 50 million light-years across. The simulation was created by Andrew Pontzen of UCL and Fabio Governato of the University of Washington.

New Galactic Supercluster Map Shows Milky Way’s ‘Heavenly’ Home

A new cosmic map is giving scientists an unprecedented look at the boundaries for the giant supercluster that is home to Earth’s own Milky Way galaxy and many others. Scientists even have a name for the colossal galactic group: Laniakea, Hawaiian for “immeasurable heaven.”

Image 1: Scientists have created the first map of a colossal supercluster of galaxies known as Laniakea, the home of Earth’s Milky Way galaxy and many other. This computer simulation, a still from a Nature journal video, depicts the giant supercluster, with the Milky Way’s location shown as a red dot. Credit: [Nature Video](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rENyyRwxpHo)

Image 2: This computer-generated depiction of the Laniakea Supercluster of galaxies, which includes the Milky Way galaxy containing Earth’s solar system, shows a view of the supercluster as seen from the supergalactic equatorial plane. Credit: SDvision interactive visualization software by DP at CEA/Saclay, France

The scientists responsible for the new 3D map suggest that the newfound Laniakea supercluster of galaxies may even be part of a still-larger structure they have not fully defined yet.

"We live in something called ‘the cosmic web,’ where galaxies are connected in tendrils separated by giant voids," said lead study author Brent Tully, an astronomer at the University of Hawaii at Honolulu.

Galactic structures in space

Galaxies are not spread randomly throughout the universe. Instead, they clump in groups, such as the one Earth is in, the Local Group, which contains dozens of galaxies. In turn, these groups are part of massive clusters made up of hundreds of galaxies, all interconnected in a web of filaments in which galaxies are strung like pearls. The colossal structures known as superclusters form at the intersections of filaments.

The giant structures making up the universe often have unclear boundaries. To better define these structures, astronomers examined Cosmicflows-2, the largest-ever catalog of the motions of galaxies, reasoning that each galaxy belongs to the structure whose gravity is making it flow toward.

"We have a new way of defining large-scale structures from the velocities of galaxies rather than just looking at their distribution in the sky," Tully said.

(via afro-dominicano)

afro-dominicano:

'Cosmos' Finale Brings a (Big) Bang of Wonder

For astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson, the scientific exploration of our universe is one amazing voyage, and so too has been his run on the new “Cosmos.”

As host of Fox’s science-themed “Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey,” Tyson has carried readers back and forth through time, revisited scientists during pivotal discoveries and introduced a new generation to the wonder of space and science. The show debuted in March and airs its 13th and final episode tonight (June 8).

"We end on a note where yes, this is a journey. It’s a look at how far it’s come, look at how much further it can go," Tyson told reporters Friday. “It’s our solar curiosity, if you will, that will keep that pumped. Without it, I don’t know that the country or the world or culture or civilization can go anywhere.”

"Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey" is a 21st-century reboot of the iconic 1980 PBS series "Cosmos: A Personal Journey" hosted by the famed astronomer popularizer of science Carl Sagan, who died in 1996. Like that original series, the new show is led by Ann Druyan, Sagan’s widow and longtime partner, who serves as co-writer and executive producer.

But there has been one major difference. This new “Cosmos” has been big. Unlike the 1980 series, which aired on public television, the new “Cosmos” aired Sunday nights on Fox, then again on Monday nights on the National Geographic Channel. The series was beamed out to 181 countries and launched with a tie-in app for mobile devices and well as a vigorous social media campaign.

"I have a feeling that the reaction to the series has exceeded my wildest fantasies," Druyan told Space.com Friday during a conference call. She added that she was stunned last Sunday (June 1), when "Cosmos" came in neck and neck with "The Bachelorette," nearly win the night in ratings with an episode about global warming on Earth.

"I have a feeling of just tremendous satisfaction that Fox and Nat Geo were brave enough to put this show on primetime, which hasn’t happened on a commercial broadcast network such as Fox in recent memory," Druyan said.

Full Article

afro-dominicano:

Grand Swirls

This new Hubble image shows NGC 1566, a beautiful galaxy located approximately 40 million light-years away in the constellation of Dorado (The Dolphinfish).

NGC 1566 is an intermediate spiral galaxy, meaning that while it does not have a well defined bar-shaped region of stars at its centre — like barred spirals — it is not quite an unbarred spiral either (heic9902o).

The small but extremely bright nucleus of NGC 1566 is clearly visible in this image, a telltale sign of its membership of the Seyfert class of galaxies.

The centres of such galaxies are very active and luminous, emitting strong bursts of radiation and potentially harbouring supermassive black holes that are many millions of times the mass of the Sun.

NGC 1566 is not just any Seyfert galaxy; it is the second brightest Seyfert galaxy known. It is also the brightest and most dominant member of the Dorado Group, a loose concentration of galaxies that together comprise one of the richest galaxy groups of the southern hemisphere. This image highlights the beauty and awe-inspiring nature of this unique galaxy group, with NGC 1566 glittering and glowing, its bright nucleus framed by swirling and symmetrical lavender arms.

upworthy:

Carl Sagan Explains Why You’re Getting Antsy Sitting Behind A Desk

We’ve been explorers since the beginning. Probably something in our DNA. Let’s take the ol’ genetic code to the stars instead of murdering each other here on earth.

(via afro-dominicano)

kenobi-wan-obi:

today’s episode of Cosmos was amazing! if you’re into Panspermia theory of astrobiology you’ll love this episode. basically getting into how the key ingredients for life lie dorment in orbiting debris like comets, asteroids and other planetary bodies that enter planets and begin the process of evolution and life.

ohstarstuff:

MODEL UNIVERSE RECREATES EVOLUTION OF THE COSMOS

Astronomers have created the first realistic virtual universe using a computer simulation called “Illustris.” Illustris can recreate 13 billion years of cosmic evolution in a cube 350 million light-years on a side with unprecedented resolution.

The computer simulation began a mere 12 million years after the Big Bang. When it reached the present day, astronomers counted more than 41,000 galaxies in the cube of simulated space. 

The model requires a huge amount of computing power: running it on even a state-of-the-art desktop computer would take almost 2,000 years. Even run across more than 8,000 processors, the simulation still took several months.

VIDEO SIMULATION


CREDIT:
http://www.illustris-project.org/
http://www.cfa.harvard.edu/news/2014-10
http://www.nature.com/news/model-universe-recreates-evolution-of-the-cosmos-1.15178

(via afro-dominicano)

Scientists.. are human, we have our blind spots and prejudices. Science.. is a mechanism designed to ferret them out. Problem is, we aren’t always faithful to the core values of science.
Neil deGrasse Tyson - Cosmos: ASTO "The Lost Worlds of Planet Earth" (via kenobi-wan-obi)

kenobi-wan-obi:

tyquil:

i feel like im watching dragon ball Z and goku is about to show up and fight final form neil degrassi tyson

id watch this.

(via afro-dominicano)

ricktimus:

Neil deGrasse Tyson is not impressed with all your sexism.

(via afro-dominicano)

thedragoninmygarage:

 “There are many millions of living species of animals and plants, most of them still unknown to science. Think of that — we have yet to make contact with most of the forms of terrestrial life.”.

Neil deGrasse Tyson, Cosmos

thedragoninmygarage:

“There are many millions of living species of animals and plants, most of them still unknown to science. Think of that — we have yet to make contact with most of the forms of terrestrial life.”.

Neil deGrasse Tyson, Cosmos

(via afro-dominicano)

kenobi-wan-obi:

NGC 1999 and Surrounding by Enrico Africa

A dust filled bright nebula with a vast hole of empty space represented by a black patch of sky, as can be seen in the photograph. It is a reflection nebula, and shines from the light of the variable star V380 Orionis.

kenobi-wan-obi:

Herschel Completes Largest Survey of Cosmic Dust in Local Universe

The largest census of dust in local galaxies has been completed using data from ESA’s Herschel space observatory, providing a huge legacy to the scientific community.

Cosmic dust grains are a minor but fundamental ingredient in the recipe of gas and dust for creating stars and planets. But despite its importance, there is an incomplete picture of the dust properties in galaxies beyond our own Milky Way.

Key questions include how the dust varies with the type of galaxy, and how it might affect our understanding of how galaxies evolve.

Before concluding its observations in April 2013, Herschel provided the largest survey of cosmic dust, spanning a wide range of nearby galaxies located 50–80 million light-years from Earth.

The catalogue contains 323 galaxies with varying star formation activity and different chemical compositions, observed by Herschel’s instruments across far-infrared and submillimetre wavelengths.

A sample of these galaxies is displayed in a collage, arranged from dust-rich in the top left to dust-poor in the bottom right.

The dust-rich galaxies are typically spiral or irregular, whereas the dust-poor ones are usually elliptical. Blue and red colours represent cooler and warmer regions of dust, respectively.

ussromanov:

Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey 

(via afro-dominicano)